After flying last event I thought I might share some knowledge to alleviate some pain points regarding IFR procedures, especially when they apply to formations.
First of all, when the weather is bad 2 ship takeoffs are actually required unless the wind or runway condition is out of limits (wet). Here is the decision matrix:
The reason why you want to fly close in shitty weather is simply because if you are far away, you will go lost wingman in the weather which is considerably more dangerous than flying 10 feet away from another plane. The instrument interval takeoff is designed to get everybody airborne and rejoined out of the weather while maintaining proper spacing and altitude deconfliction during the climb. Lead announces every 5,000 foot interval he is passing starting at 5,0000 MSL simply for SA for the rest of his flight. When #1 makes a heading change, he alerts the rest of his flight, and depending on the position you are in for that flight, you hack the clock and turn accordingly at either 20, 40, or 60 secs as depicted:
I've heard recently that people are running out of gas. This is unacceptable. To calculate a bingo do the following:
Find out how far it is from the furthest steerpoint on your flight plan to homeplate. Last event this was 163 miles. Estimate the speed in which you will fly under normal conditions. Under normal conditions we usually cruise around 0.7 mach, which is about 440 knots KTAS, which is about 7nm/min. Just use 7nm/min always for this calculation. If I divide 163nm by 7nm/min, it will take me about 23 minutes to go this distance. Write this number down somewhere. Next calculate fuel flow. I use 7,000 lbs/hr as a guideline. When I divide 7,000lbs/hr by 60 mins, I get 116lbs/min fuel flow. Always use this number. Grab the 23 mins number we wrote down, multiply by 116lbs/min, and we get 2,700 pounds. This is how much fuel it will take you to get from the farthest point in the mission back to homeplate. My bingo is 2,700
Now consider single runway ops. Let's just say Stanley decides to crash his airplane on the runway at Pohang during a normal landing, making the airport unusable. Now we have to plan for an alternate. Last mission the alternate was 30 miles away. So using the (7nm/min) and (116lbs/min) numbers I always use, I calculated that it would take 500 more pounds to reach my alternate. Thus my bingo is now 3,200.
Now let's say we want to shoot an approach at homeplate, arc on the TACAN, or hold at DAEBO. I just add 400-500 pounds as technique. My ultimate bingo is 3,700. The bottom line is to always add to your bingo, and never subtract. Never ignore the bingo warning on the HUD. If you set a proper bingo it comes on, your playtime is up, providing that something war or meeshun related isn't demanding your attention.
Fix to Fixes
In the last event thread I showed the example I used to go to any fix in the world that is defined off a radial and DME from a TACAN. There are two situations, one where you are currently at a DME which is farther from the DME of the fix you want to go, and the opposite, where you are at a DME closer to where you want to go. Let's start with the first example:
Green is the course arrow which you can set using the course knob and ALWAYS set to the radial outbound to the fix you want to fly, in this case DAEBO, R-030 outbound at 11 DME. The magenta line is just a exaggerated depiction of the TACAN pointer that always points to the tuned TACAN station. The yellow tics illustrate the DME's of various points along the course needle that I would want to fly. Because I want to fly to 11 DME, I pick a point half way between 17 and 8. I then draw a line from my theoretical position (the tail of the magenta TACAN pointer) through this point on the course needle that I set to R-030. I then transpose this line through my plane at the middle of the HSI and fly the appropriate heading. For your SA, in this situation you will initially see the DME decrease until the magenta TACAN pointer points 90 degrees to the right of your aircraft, and then DME will increase. Do not worry, as long as you maintain this heading, you will arrive at the DAEBO fix +/- 1 nm.
Now the opposite. Let's say you want to go to a fix that is off the 030 radial at 40 DME. Last time I told you our position was at the tail of the magenta TACAN pointer. This time, however, we are not at the tip of the tail because our DME is less than the intended fix. We are somewhere between the TACAN pointer and the plane in the middle. In this scenario, envision that the desired fix is at the tip of the green course arrow, labeled "40" in yellow. We are at 17 DME from the station, roughly half the distance to the desired fix, so I imagine my position at the blue dot labeled in magenta "17DME". I draw a line from my imaginary position to the tip of the course arrow, and I find my desired heading.
Circling is used when you want to shoot a compatible approach from one runway direction and land either on another runway or the opposite runway direction. There are many reasons to do this, such as wind or approach minimums. At Pohang, the TACAN can only get me down to 937 MSL but the localizer from RWY 26 is more precise and when factoring in circling minimums, can get me down to 687 MSL. Below is a plan and profile view of what circling looks like. Key points to takeaway are circling CAN ONLY BE FLOWN FROM A NON-PRECISION APPROACH (NOT AN ILS) and you must not descend below circling minimums until established in the final turn. Your perch picture will be different because you will be noticeably lower than normal, so adjust accordingly and don't stall.
I hope this helps and becomes procedure at UOAF.
Edited by Force_Majeure, 2017-07-23 @ 10:23.